According to recommendations of the U. Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, women aged 35 and older who desire information of their risk of having a Down syndrome fetus should have chorionic villus sampling CVS or amniocentesis for detection. Multiple serum marker testing is considered medically necessary for women who decline these more invasive procedures. Aetna considers the use of the following serum markers experimental and investigational for second trimester serum marker screening for Down syndrome because the clinical use of these markers is under investigation:
Variolation[ edit ] Campaigners in London for expanded vaccination in the developing world Early attempts to prevent smallpox involved deliberate inoculation with the disease in hopes that a mild case would confer immunity.
Originally called inoculation, this technique was later called variolation to avoid confusion with cowpox inoculation vaccination when that was Stockholm syndrome mid term paper by Edward Jenner. Although variolation had a long history in China and India, it was first used in North America and England in Reverend Cotton Mather introduced variolation to Boston, Massachusetts, during the smallpox epidemic.
Zabdiel Boylston to try it. Boylston first experimented on his 6-year-old son, his slave, and his slave's son; each subject contracted the disease and was sick for several days, until the sickness vanished and they were "no longer gravely ill".
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduced variolation to England. She had seen it used in Turkey and, inhad her son successfully variolated in Constantinople under the supervision of Dr.
When she returned to England inshe had her daughter variolated by Maitland. This aroused considerable interest, and Sir Hans Sloane organized the variolation of some inmates in Newgate Prison.
These were successful, and after a further short trial intwo daughters of Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales were variolated without mishap.
With this royal approval, the procedure became common when smallpox epidemics threatened.
For example, in a sermon entitled "The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation", the English theologian Reverend Edmund Massey argued that diseases are sent by God to punish sin and that any attempt to prevent smallpox via inoculation is a "diabolical operation". This was the case with Massey, whose sermon reached North America, where there was early religious opposition, particularly by John Williams.
A greater source of opposition there was Dr. There was also opposition from some variolators who saw the loss of a lucrative monopoly. William Rowley published illustrations of deformities allegedly produced by vaccination, lampooned in James Gillray 's famous caricature depicted on this page, and Benjamin Moseley likened cowpox to syphilisstarting a controversy that would last into the 20th century.
The reason for this was that vaccination was introduced before laboratory methods were developed to control its production and account for its failures. Further, identification methods for potential pathogens were not available until the late 19th to early 20th century.
Diseases later shown to be caused by contaminated vaccine included erysipelastuberculosistetanusand syphilis. This last, though rare—estimated at cases in million vaccinations  —attracted particular attention. Charles Creightona leading medical opponent of vaccination, claimed that the vaccine itself was a cause of syphilis and devoted a book to the subject.
In turn, opponents of vaccination pointed out that this contradicted Jenner's belief that vaccination conferred complete protection.
Thereafter Parliament passed successive acts to enact and enforce compulsory vaccination. The act extended the age requirement to 14 years and introduced repeated fines for repeated refusal for the same child. Initially, vaccination regulations were organised by the local Poor Law Guardians, and in towns where there was strong opposition to vaccination, sympathetic Guardians were elected who did not pursue prosecutions.
This was changed by the act, which required Guardians to act. This significantly changed the relationship between the government and the public, and organized protests increased.
The financial burden of fines fell hardest on the working class, who would provide the largest numbers at public demonstrations. Vaccination was not made compulsory there untiland conscientious objection was allowed after vigorous protest only in 'Stockholm syndrome' is a term used to describe the positive bond some kidnap victims develop with their captor.
High-profile cases are reported by the media although the diagnosis is not described in any international classification system.
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For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Stockholm Syndrome. thoroughly? yes Corrie Nicholas Sedita English November 25, Stockholm syndrome: Cause and Effect Stockholm syndrome; an issue that lends it name from a robbery of Kreditbanken in Stockholm, Sweden, in which two robbers held four bank employees hostage from August 23 to These robbers shared a .
Stockholm Syndrome was coined by Lange (), who described a curious bond which developed between bank-employee hostages and their captors after a failed bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden.
He first became popular when he was banned from Xbox Live; later versions have him reacting to his dog getting killed or about Usain Bolt breaking the m sprint record or .
Stockholm syndrome is a condition that causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity. These alliances, resulting from a bond formed between captor and captives during intimate time spent together, are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims.