Land Art, also called Earthworks, developed during this period. The American Southwest, with its vast open spaces and dramatic landscapes, became an especially popular site for Earthworks in the s. In his essay on Spiral Jetty, Smithson recalled his first impression of the area.
When Smithson was nine his family moved to the Allwood section of Clifton. He primarily identified himself as a painter during this time, but after a three-year rest from the art world, Smithson emerged in as a proponent of the emerging minimalist movement.
His new work abandoned the preoccupation with the body that had been common in his earlier work. Instead he began to use glass sheet and neon lighting tubes to explore visual refraction and mirroring, in particular the sculpture Enantiomorphic Chambers.
Crystalline structures and the concept of entropy became of particular interest to him, and informed a number of sculptures completed during this period, including Alogon 2.
He said that in the ultimate future the universe will burn out into an all encompassing sameness. Smithson Spiral jetty smithson essay the idea of entropy to explore ideas of decay and renewal, chaos and order, non-sites and earthworks, trying to find equilibrium between these opposites.
His ideas on entropy also branched out into culture, "the urban sprawl and the infinite number of housing developments of the post war boom have contributed to the architect of entropy". Smithson did not see entropy as a disadvantage; he saw it as a form of transformation of society and culture, which is shown in his artwork like his non-site pieces.
Smithson became affiliated with artists who were identified with the minimalist or Primary Structures movement, such as Nancy Holt whom he marriedRobert Morris and Sol LeWitt.
As a writer, Smithson was interested in applying mathematical impersonality to art that he outlined in essays and reviews for Arts Magazine and Artforum and for a period was better known as a critic than as an artist.
He eventually joined the Dwan Gallery, whose owner Virginia Dwan was an enthusiastic supporter of his work. Earth Projects" in Artforum that promoted the work of the first wave of land art artists, and in he began producing land art pieces to further explore concepts gained from his readings of William S.
Ballardand George Kubler. In his essay "Incidents of Mirror-Travel in the Yucatan"  Smithson documents a series of temporary sculptures made with mirrors at particular locations around the Yucatan peninsula. Smithson was interested in challenging the prevalent conception of Central Park as an outdated 19th-century Picturesque aesthetic in landscape architecture that had a static relationship within the continuously evolving urban fabric of New York City.
In studying the writings of 18th- and 19th-century Picturesque treatise writers Gilpin, Price, Knight and Whately, Smithson recovers issues of site specificity and human intervention as dialectic landscape layers, experiential multiplicity, and the value of deformations manifest in the Picturesque landscape.
Now the Ramble has grown up into an urban jungle, and lurking in its thickets are "hoods, hobos, hustlers, and homosexuals," and other estranged creatures of the city…. Walking east, I passed graffiti on boulders… On the base of the Obelisk along with the hieroglyphs there are also graffiti.
Further down, the spillway becomes a brook choked with mud and tin cans. The mud then spews under the Gapstow Bridge to become a muddy slough that inundates a good part of The Pond, leaving the rest of The Pond aswirl with oil slicks, sludge, and Dixie cups  While Smithson did not find "beauty" in the evidence of abuse and neglect, he did see the state of things as demonstrative of the continually transforming relationships between man and landscape.
In his proposal to make process art out of the dredging of The Pond, Smithson sought to insert himself into the dynamic evolution of the park  Smithson became particularly interested in the notion of deformities within the spectrum of anti-aesthetic dynamic relationships which he saw present in the Picturesque landscape.
By re-interpreting and re-valuing these treatises, Smithson was able to broaden the temporal and intellectual context for his own work, and to offer renewed meaning for Central Park as an important work of modern art and landscape architecture. A site was a work located in a specific outdoor location, while a non-site was a work which could be displayed in any suitable space, such as an art gallery.
In at Kent State UniversitySmithson created Partially Buried Woodshed  to illustrate geological time consuming human history. It was entirely submerged by rising lake waters for several years, but has since re-emerged.
Of the work, Greg Lindquist professed that it was a "quintessential example of fusing the natural and its human manufacture. In he designed the Bingham Canyon Reclamation Project.
Death and legacy[ edit ] On July 20,Smithson died in a plane crash, while surveying sites for his work Amarillo Ramp in the vicinity of Amarillo, Texas. Infilmmaker and art historian James Crump produced and directed Troublemakers: The Story of Land Art.
Troublemakers was one of twelve documentary films selected by the 53rd New York Film Festival, September 25—October 11, Oxford University Press, Nancy Holt (April 5, – February 8, ) was an American artist most known for her public sculpture, installation art and land rutadeltambor.comhout her career, Holt also produced works in other media, including film, photography, and writing books and articles about art.
Robert Smithson's earthwork Spiral Jetty () is located at Rozel Point peninsula on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake.
Using over six thousand tons of black basalt rocks and earth from the site, Smithson formed a coil 1, feet long and 15 feet wide that winds counterclockwise off the shore into the water. Form as Carving. Carving is a process of subtracting form from a solid block of material by the techniques of cutting, chiselling or filing.
Stone and wood are the principal materials used for carving, each of which has its own qualities, strengths and weaknesses as a medium. Western painting - Contemporary Western art: – The postwar work of Braque developed a few basic themes.
The space and content of the Studio series of five paintings were formulated in vertical phases of varying sombreness; a mysterious bird that featured in this series was a symbol expressive of aspiration.
Nicolas de Staël, a friend of Braque who was born in St. Petersburg. The essay will explain how artists have used abstraction, stylisation and distortion in artworks through the ages through the analysis of Robert Smithson’s “Spiral Jetty” and Colin Lanceley’s “Night Garden”.
“When he built ‘Spiral Jetty,’ Robert Smithson practically came full circle,” Tuchman writes. The helix built on the side of the Great Salt Lake is a version of the dazzlingly engineered elevated roadway that spun cars out of the tunnel on its Jersey side.