The ideas of Melanie Klein are not easy and it is difficult to get your head around them.
Spaltung  of consciousness, not with Janet as the product of innate weakness, but as the result of inner conflict. The division of objects into congenial and uncongenial ones An important step in childhood development is the gradual depolarization of these two drives.
At what Klein called the paranoid-schizoid positionthere is a stark separation of the things the child loves good, gratifying objects and the things the child hates bad, frustrating objects"because everything is polarised into extremes of love and hate, just like what the baby seems to experience and young children are still very close to.
As the child learns that people and objects can be good and bad at the same time, he or she progresses to the next phase, the depressive positionwhich "entails a steady, though painful, approximation towards the reality of oneself and others": Otto Kernberg In the developmental model of Otto Kernberg, the overcoming of splitting is also an important developmental task.
Kernberg distinguishes three different stages in the development of a child with respect to splitting: Because the boundaries between the self and the other are not stable yet, the other as a person is viewed as either all good or all bad, depending on their actions.
Having hateful thoughts about the other does not mean that the self is all hateful and does not mean that the other person is all hateful either.
If a person fails to accomplish this developmental task satisfactorily, borderline pathology can emerge. Transference It has been suggested that interpretation of the transference "becomes effective through a sort of splitting of the ego into a reasonable, judging portion and an experiencing portion, the former recognizing the latter as not appropriate in the present and as coming from the past".Melanie Klein (30 March – 22 September ) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children and was particularly interested in the early psychological development that which had a significant impact on child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis and is still used in present day therapeutic techniques.
Below is a selection of concepts developed by Klein and her followers.
The definitions are reproduced from the The New Dictionary of Kleinian Thought by Elizabeth Bott Spillius, Jane Milton, Penelope Garvey, Cyril Couve and Deborah Steiner (Routledge, ). Britton talks in illuminating depth about Abraham’s key concepts and clinical approach, his sustained dialogue with Freud, his impact on the development of psychoanalysis in its early years, and the ways in which his profound contributions have been absorbed into the theoretical writings of both Klein and Freud, among others.
Such splitting was closely linked to the defence of "isolation The division of objects into congenial and uncongenial ones making 'disconnections'." It was the latter sense of the term that was predominantly adopted and exploited by Melanie Klein.
The Origin and Nature of the "Object" in the Theories of Klein and Fairbairn12 Stephen A.
Mitchell, Ph.D. Melanie Klein and W. R. D. Fairbairn have been two of the most significant theorists within psychoanalysis both seemed more interested in generating new concepts than in integrating new ideas with earlier ones.
Much of. This chapter is related to authentic letters of Melanie Klein and her mother, as researched by Phyllis Grosskurth, in her biography of Melanie Klein. Derivations of Klein's theory of "envy and gratitude" and many other theoretical concepts .