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What is a hypothesis? By Saul McLeodupdated August 10, A hypothesis plural hypotheses is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be the outcome of the study. This usually involves proposing a possible relationship between two variables: In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment.
Types of Research Hypotheses Alternative Hypothesis The alternative hypothesis states that there is a relationship between the two variables being studied one variable has an effect on the other.
It states that the results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being investigated.
Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the two variables being studied one variable does not affect the other. It states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated. Nondirectional Hypothesis A two-tailed non-directional hypothesis predicts that the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable, but the direction of the effect is not specified.
Directional Hypothesis A one-tailed directional hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Can a hypothesis be proven? Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct.
How to Write a Hypothesis 1. To write the alternative and null hypotheses for an investigation, you need to identify the key variables in the study.
The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and the dependent variable is the outcome which is measured.
Operationalized the variables being investigated. Operational variables or operationalizing definitions refer to how you will define and measure a specific variable as it is used in your study.
Decide on a direction for your prediction. If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect on the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional one-tailed hypothesis. If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional two-tailed hypothesis.
A good hypothesis is short i. Now, if we decide to study this by giving the same group of students a lesson on a Monday morning and on a Friday afternoon and then measuring their immediate recall on the material covered in each session we would end up with the following: The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon.
Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors. The null hypothesis is, therefore, the opposite of the alternative hypothesis in that it states that there will be no change in behavior.
At this point, you might be asking why we seem so interested in the null hypothesis. Surely the alternative or experimental hypothesis is more important? Well, yes it is. What we do instead is see if we can disprove, or reject, the null hypothesis.
How to reference this article:Level up: Moving from a good to great hypothesis. Understanding what makes an idea worth testing is necessary for your optimization team. If your tests are based on random ideas you googled or were suggested by a consultant, your testing process still has its training wheels on.
In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).
While there are many ways to state a hypothesis, you may wish to revise your first hypothesis in order to make it easier to design an experiment to test it. For example, let's say you have a bad breakout the morning after eating a lot of greasy food.
You may wonder if there is a correlation between eating greasy food and getting pimples. A well-written hypothesis is the key to any well-designed experiment. In this lesson, we'll work through the process of designing an experiment based on the hypothesis it's meant to test and see.
A example of a hypothesis statement would be, As the (independent variable) (describe how you would change it), then the (dependent variable) will (describe the effect) The following is a song on how to construct a hypothesis.