Counter Reformation— the response of Roman church to the Protestant Reformation wherein beliefs were clarified, reaffirmed, and justified. A few main themes that can guide your discussion of all the major Italian Renaissance works include: The revival of classical styles and ideas specifically humanismreturn to the naturalistic style 3D objects and spaceand the rising status of the individual both artist and patron. An important point of contrast here is the fact that earlier large-scale sculpture decorated architecture.
Art in the High Renaissance Summary The artists of the High Renaissance, which is loosely defined as the period from tobuilt upon the foundation laid by their predecessors. The best- known artists of the Italian Renaissance grew famous during the High Renaissance.
Wealthy patrons continued to enthusiastically support theses artists as they traveled around Italy in search of commissions to create their masterpieces. Leonardo Da Vinci Perhaps the most influential figure of the entire Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci epitomized the renaissance ideal.
He was a talented painter and sculptor. His interest in science was boundless and his work in that field unprecedented. InLorenzo de Medici purchased a lyre which Leonardo had fashioned in the shape of a horse's skull, intending to send it to Ludovico Sforza of Milan.
Leonardo asked to personally deliver the gift, and when he did, Sforza persuaded him to remain in Milan, where he painted his famous mural The Last Supper on the wall of a monastery. Leonardo remained in Milan seventeen years, returning to Florence in when the French invaded Milan.
In Florence, he became chief military engineer, a position he held untilwhen he went to Rome in search of a commission from the pope. Pope Leo X preferred the work of the painter Raphael, however, and Leonardo moved on, becoming court painter to Francis I of France, where he remained until his death in Many of da Vinci's greatest ideas remained just that, and he recorded his plans for future inventions and his notes on life around him in notebooks that have given historians insight into the true extent of his genius.
Michaelangelo Buonarroti Michaelangelo Buonarroti enrolled in the school for sculptors established by Lorenzo de Medici in Florence, when he was only thirteen, and soon attracted the attention of Lorenzo himself. Michaelangelo lived for a while in the Medici palace as a member of the family, absorbing the principles of humanism and Neoplatonism that freely flourished there.
Later, Michaelangelo, inspired by the belief that he had a divine calling, traveled to Rome, where, at age 23, he carved the Pieta, a bust of the Virgin Mary, bringing him instant fame. When he returned to Florence inhe was commissioned to sculpt the Hebrew King David, just as Donatello had.
Michaelangelo's David became the symbol of Florence's prospering artists, and remains there today.
InMichaelangelo began his work decorating the walls and ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. The project was arduous and time-consuming, and when he finished he had painted over human figures.
The painting of the ceiling has assumed legendary status and is considered one of the great artistic undertakings of all time. Raphael Raphael, born Raffaello Santi, was the leading painter of the Renaissance.
The most widely known of the series of murals and frescoes he painted is the School of Athens, which depicts an imaginary assembly of famous philosophers.
Raphael maintained the favor of the Julius II and his successor Leo X, and thus painted for papal commissions all his life.
He was widely renowned as the greatest painter of his age, and considered so important by his contemporaries that when he died at the premature age of 37 he was buried in the Pantheon. Early in life he moved to Venice to study art.
Titian distinguished himself through the use of bright colors and new techniques that inbued those colors with greater subtlety and depth.During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.
Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe.
This lecture material combines Italian art of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in one lecture, with suggested opportunities to expand on the material should you find you have more time.
Glossary: Renaissance: meaning “rebirth,” the Renaissance refers to the art of Europe made between – Proto-Renaissance: s. During the second quarter of the 16th century, mannerism began to take hold in European art.
This was the first truly international European style. Renaissance art had been typically Italian in style, but mannerism developed throughout Europe and combined many traditions. •Between and , Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement.
•City-states were the centers of political, economic, and social life in Renaissance . Late Gothic & Renaissance Art in Northern Europe, The large area of Europe roughly equivalent to modern Belgium, Germany, and Renaissance art originally formed by Emile Gavet of Paris.
Several works in During the . During the early Renaissance the painter Giotto () used prospective (shading) to create life-like paintings. Before Giotto, the Byzantine, two-dimensional style was the norm.
Although these paintings look lifeless, it was the religious message behind the painting that was considered important, not the art.