Does the extended essay have to be 4000 words

Background[ edit ] Although related to the more general problem of the origin of languagethe evolution of distinctively human speech capacities has become a distinct and in many ways separate area of scientific research. Speech is in this sense optional, although it is the default modality for language. Places of articulation passive and active: Sub-apical Uncontroversially, monkeys, apes and humans, like many other animals, have evolved specialised mechanisms for producing sound for purposes of social communication.

Does the extended essay have to be 4000 words

Same Display Dimensions As a corollary, Equivalent lenses are lenses that produce Equivalent photos on the format they are used on which means they will have the same AOV angle of view and the same aperture diameter. The focal lengths all have the same [diagonal] AOVso we say the focal lengths are equivalent.

The same total amount of light falls on the sensor for the same equivalent relative aperture and same exposure time, so we say the exposures are equivalent. The photos will have the same lightness for the same equivalent exposure and equivalent ISO setting, so we say the ISO settings are equivalent.

An important consequence of the same aperture entrance pupil diameter is that the DOF and diffraction will also be the same for a given perspective, framing, display size, viewing distance, and visual acuity. In addition, since the exposure times are the same, the same total amount of light will fall on the sensor for all systems with a given scene luminance and lens transmissionwhich means the photos will have the same noise if the sensors are equally efficient.

Does the extended essay have to be 4000 words

Of course, sensors are not equally efficient although often, but not always, close for a given generationnor are all lenses proportionally sharp, have the same color, bokeh, distortion, or flare characteristics, nor do all sensors have the same pixel count, CFA, and AA filter.

Equality of other visual properties, such as noise, detail, etc. The second and third definitions of "equivalent" also fits: On the other hand, sensors of the same generation are usually pretty close in terms of efficiency see here for quite a few examples.

Still, there are other issues to consider, such as color and distortion although these two can usually be corrected for in processingbokeh, lens flare, etc. So while differences in the technology may well make for differences that matter more than one or more of the parameters of Equivalence, Equivalent photos will typically be the closest in appearance more so, of course, when the sensors are of the same generation.

The larger the photo is displayed, the more extreme the processing, and the lower the amount of light that makes up the photo, the more obvious the role that differences in technology will play. In addition, there is a small niggle in the parameter of "same framing" for systems with different aspect ratios e.

We can either crop one image to the the aspect ratio of the other or crop both to a common aspect ratio or compare at the same AOV and display with the same diagonal measurement. The details of this are discussed at the end of this section.

Does the extended essay have to be 4000 words

It is important to note that Equivalent photos on different formats will not have the same exposureand this is the source of most all resistance to the concept.

The reason is quite simple: The same total amount of light will fall on the sensor for Equivalent photos which results in a lower density of light exposure on a larger sensor. Many feel that exposure has been usurped with DOFbut this reflects not only a lack of understanding of what exposure actually is, but how much of a role DOF plays in a photo, even if DOF, per se, is not a consideration.

While the artistic value of DOF is subjective, the fact is that both the total light falling on the sensor and the DOF are functions of the aperture diameter. Larger aperture diameters admit more light, but they also introduce more aberrations from the lens. Thus, DOF, noise, and sharpness are all intrinsically related through the aperture of the lens.

Exposure is not how bright or dark a photo appears -- we can lighten or darken a photo as we see fit.Equivalent photos, as opposed to "equal" photos, are photos that have the same perspective, framing, DOF, shutter speed, lightness, and display rutadeltambor.comlent lenses, then, are lenses on different formats that produce Equivalent images (same diagonal angle of view and same aperture diameter).

Nobody Is Perfect, Everything Is Commensurable | Slate Star Codex

Equivalence is only relevant when comparing different formats. A friend of a friend told me that he tried to set the price of his game to some figure or other but that Valve vetoed it and set it to something else. Re possible reasons for passivism: my personal one is that I had tried activism a few times over the years, and it backfired in various traumatic and unexpected ways, even though my words and actions were indistinguishable (to me) from those taken by other, much more successful activists.

This paper provides quantitative data that, in many cases, open source software / free software is equal to or superior to their proprietary competition. The paper examines market share, reliability, performance, scalability, scaleability, security, and total cost of ownership; it also comments on non-quantitative issues and unnecessary fears.

A few years ago, my husband was contacted by genealogists tracking descendants of rabbis from the Lithuanian shtetl of Kelm. The impoverished little town was known for its fierce schools of Talmudic learning, or yeshivas; it was a centre of Mussar – a strict system of ethics based on logic and the rigorous practice of mindfulness, a meditative approach to self-reflection and prayer.

The figure seems about right. From the Wall Street Journal article Fast-Paced Best Seller: Author Russell Blake Thrives on Volumes “In , self-published books accounted for 32% of the top selling e-books on Amazon each week, on average.”.

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