After receiving a revelation commanding him to practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the practice to close associates.
But all references are to the editio princeps of M. Parentheses or numerations attributable to Ibn Rushd. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e.
Diacritical marks are omitted where an Arabic name is incorporated in an English form, e. Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle. The purpose of this treatise 2 is to examine, from the standpoint of the study of the Law, 3 whether the study of philosophy and logic 4 is allowed by the Law, 5 or prohibited, or commanded, either by way of recommendation or as obligatory.
This is no more heretical in the one case than in the other. And logic must be learned from the ancient masters, regardless of the fact that they were not Muslims. But it is preferable and even necessary for anyone, who wants to understand God the Exalted and the other beings demonstratively, to have first understood the kinds of demonstration and their conditions [of validity], and in what respects demonstrative reasoning differs from dialectical, rhetorical and fallacious reasoning.
It cannot be objected: So the objector should believe the same about the study of intellectual reasoning. But most masters of this religion support intellectual reasoning, except a small group of gross literalists, who can be refuted by [sacred] texts.
So if such is the case, and everything that is required in the study of the subject of intellectual syllogisms has already been examined in the most perfect manner by the ancients, presumably we ought to lay hands on their books in order to study what they said about that subject; and if it is all correct we should accept it from them, while if there is anything incorrect in it, we should draw attention to that.
Thus it is wrong to forbid the study of ancient philosophy. Harm from it is accidental, like harm from taking medicine, drinking water, or studying law.
For if we suppose that the art of geometry did not exist in this age of ours, and likewise the art of astronomy, and a single person wanted to ascertain by himself the sizes of the heavenly bodies, their shapes, and their distances from each other, that would not be possible for him, e.
But what calls even more strongly for comparison with the art of mathematics in this respect is the art of the principles of law; and the study of law itself was completed only over a long period of time.
And if someone today wanted to find out by himself all the arguments which have been discovered by the theorists of the legal schools on controversial questions, about which debate has taken place between them in most countries of Islam except the West44 he would deserve to be ridiculed, because such a task is impossible for him, apart from the fact that the work has been done already.
Moreover, this is a situation that is self-evident not in the scientific arts alone but also in the practical arts; for there is not one of them which a single man can construct by himself. Then how can he do it with the art of arts, philosophy? If this is so, then whenever we find in the works of our predecessors of former nations a theory about beings and a reflection on them conforming to what the conditions of demonstration require, we ought to study what they said about the matter and what they affirmed in their books.
And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention to and warn against what does not accord with the truth, at the same time excusing them.
For this manner of harm which arises owing to them is something that is attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident.
For death from water by choking is an accidental matter, but death by thirst is essential and necessary. Moreover, this accidental effect of this art is a thing which may also occur accidentally from the other arts. To how many lawyers has law been a cause of lack of piety and immersion in this world!
Indeed we find most lawyers in this state, although their art by its essence calls for nothing but practical virtue. Thus it is not strange if the same thing that occurs accidentally in the art which calls for practical virtue should occur accidentally in the art which calls for intellectual virtue.
For the natures of men are on different levels with respect to [their paths to] assent. If it is unmentioned there is no contradiction, and it is in the same case as an act whose category is unmentioned, so that the lawyer has to infer it by reasoning from Scripture.
If this [apparent meaning] accords there is no argument. If it conflicts there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it. Indeed these allegorical interpretations always receive confirmation from the apparent meaning of other passages of Scripture.
So we affirm definitely that whenever the conclusion of a demonstration is in conflict with the apparent meaning of Scripture, that apparent meaning admits of allegorical interpretation according to the rules for such interpretation in Arabic. This proposition is questioned by no Muslim and doubted by no believer.
The apparent contradictions are meant to stimulate the learned to deeper study. The reason why we have received in Scripture texts whose apparent meanings contradict each other is in order to draw the attention of those who are well grounded in science to the interpretation which reconciles them.
But to establish it with certainty with regard to theoretical texts is impossible, because there have always been scholars who would not divulge their interpretation of such texts. If unanimous agreement is established by a method which is certain, such [a result] is not sound; but if [the existence of] agreement on those things is a matter of opinion, then it may be sound.
But it is recorded in Tradition that many of the first believers used to hold that Scripture has both an apparent and an inner meaning, and that the inner meaning ought not to be learned by anyone who is not a man of learning in this field and who is incapable of understanding it.
Do you want God and His Prophet to be accused of lying?In this essay I will explain their differences and similarities, their messages, how they treat their believers and other religions, their historical relationship, and other topics along these lines.
I will start this essay by explaining Christianity, and many things about it. The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong. The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.
Faulkner [, , Chronicle Books, San. The religions the following essay topics will compare and contrast are as follows: Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Daoism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Compare and contrast 2 different religions World's Religions: Judaism and Buddhism For over centuries, the term religion has been used interchangeably in close relations with faith, set of duties, system or set of beliefs.
Essay on Comparing Christianity, Judaism, and Islam - Comparing Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Christianity most widely distributed of the world religions, having substantial representation in all the populated continents of the globe.
Religious Comparison Essay Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Catholic, Protestant by: matthew konopke Introduction to western religion Christianity, Judaism and Islam. All western religions, all derived from the same idea of God. Religious Authority Both religions have a sacred text, the bible for the Christians and the Qur'an for the Muslims.