Authors Condom Trace Evidence: In many jurisdictions, this evidence raises the charge to a higher degree of sexual assault.
In Producing Associative Evidence Recovered condom traces may correspond to those found in a certain brand or used by a certain manufacturer. Unopened condom packages of this same brand found on the suspect, in his car, or at his residence also would help tie the suspect to the crime.
In Linking the Acts of Serial Rapists People tend to be creatures of habit, and sexual criminals are no exception. A serial rapist likely will use the same brand of condom to commit repeated acts.
Moreover, repeat offenders whose DNA profiles have been stored in a computer data bank may be likely to use a condom when committing subsequent crimes.
Along with other aspects of his modus operandi, traces from the same condom brand or manufacturer found during several different investigations can help connect a suspect to an entire series of assaults. Guidelines For Evidence Collection Investigators need not make any drastic changes in their usual procedures in order to include the possibility of condom trace evidence.
The following guidelines will assist criminal investigators and medical examiners when collecting this valuable evidence. After collecting the evidence, they should package the gloves separately and submit them with the evidence so that the forensic laboratory can verify that the gloves did not leave behind any particulates.
At the crime scene, investigators should make every effort to locate any used condom and its foil package. If a condom is recovered, the traces from the victim on the outside and the seminal fluids from the assailant on the inside would have the greatest evidentiary value.
If investigators find an empty condom packet, they first should try to recover any latent prints from the outside. The inside of the package probably will not contain prints, but may contain lubricant, spermicide, and particulate residues.
Investigators should wipe the inside with a clean cotton swab. The traces on this swab will serve as the standard for comparison with traces recovered from the victim and the suspect. During Medical Examinations Examination Kits Most commercial sexual assault examination kits provide two cotton swabs for each type of examination, i.
In the past, before assailants began using condoms frequently, these two swabs proved adequate—one swab for immediate examination and a second in case the defense team requested another examination by its own experts or by an independent laboratory. One to save for the defense and two to conduct examinations.
With the potential for positively identifying a suspect, most laboratories first look for traces of seminal fluids, vaginal cells, blood, and the like. Unfortunately, the solvents used to conduct this examination also remove any condom traces present, thus losing potentially valuable evidence.
Although examiners feasibly could divide each swab in half, providing an additional swab in kits for each condom trace examination easily could solve the problem. The gloves provided in commercial examination kits usually come powder-free.
However, the medical personnel who examine sexual offenders and their victims frequently prefer the gloves they normally wear, which often contain the same powders corn starch, amorphous silica, and talc found on many condom brands.
While medical staff members may insist that their collection procedures are above reproach, forensic examiners cannot guarantee the integrity of the condom trace evidence if the medical staff wears their own gloves. In short, investigators must persuade examining personnel to wear unpowdered gloves.
After the medical examinations, investigators should recover and separately package the used gloves. The forensic laboratory then can confirm that the gloves were powder-free.The ability to negotiate condom use with a partner is a skill that sexually active men and women must have in order to avoid sexually transmitted diseases including HIV.
Despite this fact, there is no psychometrically valid instrument in the literature to measure condom influence strategies. This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the condom influence strategy.
The research was conducted to investigate variables for condom use and risky sexual behaviors and examine the contextual influences on the relationship components of peer norms that influence the process of sexual promiscuity among African American MSM.
The determination of the hypothesis was the moderate relationship between peer norms for condom use and risky sexual behavior among African American MSM with low peer norms based on variables causing a greater influence in risky sexual behavior.
This finding suggests that contextual factors determining condom use go beyond partner type designations and include other relationship variables.
An investigation of condom use by frequency of sex | Sexually Transmitted Infections. An investigation of risky sexual behaviours, basic HIV knowledge and intention to use condoms among a sample of men who have sex with men in a student community Brink, Jaco Greeff () Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, A personal norm of condom-use responsibility had a strong direct effect on men's intentions to use condoms with the last sex partner.
Other variables appeared to .