But this is a very difficult question.
Using Positive Interdependence Many hands make light work. English poet John Heywood was probably not thinking about productive group work when he wrote these words inbut he undoubtedly had some end result in mind.
A key feature of productive group work is what Johnson and Johnson call positive interdependence. In fact, positive interdependence is considered by many to be the defining quality and most important component of cooperative group work. When established successfully, positive interdependence results in students' recognizing that their individual success is inextricably linked to the success of every other member of the group.
This realization only occurs when the accomplishment of a group task requires more than just segmenting the work into smaller pieces for members to do alone. The structure of the task must demand that each member of the group offer a unique contribution to the joint effort.
When students perceive that every member is indispensable to achieving their mutual goals and that they are both dependent on and obligated to their peers, conditions are ripe for collaborative learning. What Students Are Learning About Themselves We all want to contribute something unique, to have an important role, to be valued by others, and students are no exception.
If group work is designed to be interdependent, these needs are met, and the resulting positive atmosphere allows learning to take place.
As we have noted, productive group work is ultimately about results. It is important to remember, however, that outcomes are not just about task completion.
Students who mistakenly think that the only thing the teacher cares about is whether the job is done are missing out on the learning that occurs in the process. Teachers who foster a false dichotomy of complete versus incomplete tasks are overlooking the nuances of what happens inside the mind of learners as they work in tandem with others.
In collaborative work, there is always a tension between two types of learning. Hulse-Killacky, Killacky, and Donigian describe these as process learning and content learning. The process questions students are posing to themselves include Who am I? Who am I with you? Who are we together? And the content questions they are asking include What do we have to do?
What do we need to do to accomplish our goals?
Indeed, an important outcome of productive group work is that learners gain greater metacognitive awareness—that is, self-knowledge of how and when they learn something new. The key is for students' understanding about themselves to be affirming.
They are not going to have a positive picture of themselves as learners if they are not contributors to achieving the group goal. If students realize that they are not full participants, their self-talk is likely to turn negative: I can't do this because I'm too stupid.
Fear of failure and embarrassment then creeps into the learning process and can form an invisible barrier. We teachers can't see this roadblock, and our students often cannot or will not articulate what has gotten in their way.
The Neural Basis of Positive Interdependence Many teachers know of the affective filter hypothesis, which proposes that certain emotions can act as filters in the flow of academic learning. Negative feelings, such as fear and embarrassment, can interfere with a learner's ability to process information.
In a psychological equivalent to the physiological fight-or-flight response to a threat, a student who experiences negative emotions during learning will either seek escape or freeze up.Area effort ends search successfully By Don Groves Free Press A two-day search for a missing Prescott woman ended in relief when she was found about a half-mile north of her home more than 36 hours after she went missing.
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rutadeltambor.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. (Amarillo College Student's Rights and Responsibilities Publication) Regular attendance is necessary for satisfactory achievement.
Therefore, it is the responsibility of the student to attend class. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the student to attend class. ASIAN AMERICAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER WORK GROUP REPORT TO THE CHAIR OF THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
On October 11, , U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Chair Naomi C. Earp announced the formation of an Asian American and Pacific Islander Work Group (AAPI Work Group).