Wind profilers Other synoptic data or weather instruments, including Earth Simulator which is used to model climate and weather conditions. In Africa, flood is one of the major concerns of farmers.
Received Nov 6; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Information and communication technologies ICTs used in the health sector have well-known advantages. They can promote patient-centered healthcare, improve quality of care, and educate health professionals and patients.
However, implementation of ICTs remains difficult and involves changes at different levels: Nurses constitute the largest health provider group of the healthcare workforce.
The use of ICTs by nurses can have impacts in their practice. The main objective of this review of systematic reviews is to systematically summarize the best evidence regarding the effects of ICTs on nursing care.
We will consider four types of ICTs used by nurses as a way to provide healthcare: We will exclude nursing management systems, educational systems, and telephone systems.
The following types of comparisons will be carried out: Reviews published in English, French, or Spanish from 1 January will be considered. Two reviewers will independently screen the title and abstract of the papers in order to assess their eligibility and extract the following information: Any disagreements will be resolved by discussion and consensus involving the two reviewers or will involve a third review author, if needed.
Discussion This overview is an interesting starting point from which to compare and contrast findings of separate reviews regarding the positive and negative effects of ICTs on nursing care. Systematic review registration Keywords: Information and communication technology, e-Health, Telehealth, Nursing practice, Nursing care, Nursing sensitive outcomes, Overview Background Information and communication technologies ICTs embody all digital technologies that support the electronic capture, storage, processing, and exchange of information in order to promote health, prevent illness, treat disease, manage chronic illness, and so on [ 12 ].
In the health sector, ICTs refer to a set of projects or services that allow for remote care telehealthinterdisciplinary clinical support, as well as knowledge transfer [ 3 ]. The use of ICTs has the potential to promote patient-centered healthcare at a lower cost, improve quality of care and information sharing, educate health professionals and patients, encourage a new form of relationship between patients and their health providers, reduce travel time, etc.
Despite these well-known advantages, the implementation of ICTs in practice remains difficult and involves changes at different levels, including with respect to patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare organizations [ 6 ].
Nurses constitute the largest health provider group of the healthcare workforce [ 78 ] and as such represent an important target for the ICT implementation process.
Nurses are compelled to deal with the introduction of ICTs within nursing care, such as telecare technology, which can have impacts on nursing practices [ 9 ].
These technologies change the notions of place and presence and create distance between nurses and patients. Consequently, direct care cannot be provided in the traditional way face-to-face that nurses are used to [ 10 ].
Although there are several systematic reviews on the effects of ICTs on healthcare professional practices [ 11 — 13 ], most of them focus on physicians [ 1415 ]. Our preliminary searches found only three reviews that specifically targeted nurses.
One Cochrane review assessed the impact of different nursing record systems on nursing practice and healthcare outcomes [ 16 ]. In their review of nine studies, four [ 17 — 20 ] involved computerized nursing records systems.
These systems were compared to manual paper nursing care planning. Spranzo [ 19 ] did not find significant results on nursing practices i. Daly and collaborators [ 18 ] pointed out that in the computerized group, a little more nursing diagnosis had been carried out.
This time was reallocated for patient care. However, the effects of changes regarding nursing record systems on nursing practice and on patient outcomes were modest, and most of the studies targeted documentation time to perform nursing tasks, which is a small part of the nursing practice.
The other two systematic reviews concerned the use of electronic health records by nurses. The mixed review method by Stevenson et al. Nurses expressed their dissatisfaction regarding EPR systems for many reasons: Also the computer systems were considered unreliable. Another systematic review [ 22 ] examined the impact of electronic health records EHR on time efficiency of physicians and nurses from a total of 23 studies 11 of these studies assessed time efficiency among nurses.
The main findings pointed out that using bedside terminals and central station desktops saved In general, these practices were not well defined in the reviews, and there was no conceptual framework enabling reflection on the way ICTs could influence specific aspects of nursing practices and nursing care.
The knowledge generated from these reviews remains sparse because each technology is used in a specific utilization context and for a particular task e.
Objectives Considering the lack of an integrated body of knowledge on the effects of ICTs on nursing care, we plan to conduct an overview of systematic reviews to reach the following objectives: Systematically summarize the best evidence that comes from systematic reviews regarding the effects of ICTs on nursing care.
Explore whether specific ICTs such as electronic health records, telemonitoring, telecaretheir characteristics e.Impact of communication technology on businesses Posted on August 10, by John Dudovskiy Communication has been defined as “the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another” (Guffey and Almonte, , p.6).
Information and communication technology (ICT) which includes radio, television and newer digital technology such as computers and the internet, are potentially powerful tools for extending educational opportunities, formal and non-.
By analyzing the effects that modern technology has had on functionality, time efficiency, and a shear ease on communication, we develop a picture of the overall progression of person-to-person communication.
However, simply sharing common interests and pursuits with people through technology does not necessarily have a positive impact on social skills and social development. Gaming and Social Development Gaming is an instance where you may encounter potentially serious social setbacks.
Before analyzing the effect of technology on face-to-face communication, it is important to understand the rapid growth of various technologies and their current usage throughout the United States.
Over the past few decades, technology usage has grown significantly. Negative Impact of Technology on Interpersonal Communication The current generation lacks essential interpersonal skills (the ability to express the ideas and thoughts to others, face-to-face).
A major reason for this is the increased frequency of communication through texting and chatting on websites.